The overarching goal of our research is to discover how neurons in the cerebral cortex identify the objects we see—a process critical for informing our decisions and guiding our actions. In pursuit of this goal, we seek to understand how visual cortical neurons process information about the shape of an object—information that enables us to identify objects correctly and to interact with them appropriately. To furnish new mechanistic insights, we use and develop viral vectors for optogenetic neural circuit dissection in the primate cerebral cortex.